Hernán Cortés


Hernán Cortés

Hernán Cortés was born in 1485 in Medellin. His father was Martin Cortés de Monroy, an infantry captain from a refined but not influential family. Cortés's mother was Catalina Pizarro Altamirano. Interestingly, he was related to Francisco Pizarro, the man who conquered the Incas Empire. According to the biographer and friend of Cortés, cleric Francisco López de Gómar, the hero of this article was a very sick child. At the age of 14, he was sent to his nephew to Salamanca to learn Latin. After two years, he returned to Medellin, which did not appeal to his parents, who hoped for a promising career of his son. However, two years in Salamanca and experience gained in the work of a notary in Valladolid and Hispanioli they did not go in vain and allowed Cortés to know the legal code of Castile, whose acquaintance he later used to justify his unauthorized invasion of Mexico. During his youth, Cortés was considered ruthless, exalted and malignant. When he returned home at the age of 16, news of Columbus's discoveries began to flow into Spain. It even plans for Cortés to sail to America with friends of his parents and a distant relative, Nicolás de Ovando, the newly minted governor of Hispaniola. However, the injury did not allow him to sail to sea. He spent the next year traveling around the country, most likely spending most of that time in ports in southern Spain-Cadiz, Palos, Sanlucar or Sevilla.

Life and career development in Hispaniola - Cuba

In 1504, Hernan Cortés traveled to Hispaniola, where he became a colonist. The trip took place on a ship led by Alonso Quintero, who tried to deceive his superiors and reach the New World in front of them, which involved certain perks. Modus operandi Quintero later became a kind of inspiration for Cortés. In general, the history of conquistadors is full of rivalry, betrayal scares and unclean licks. After Cortés arrived in Santo Domingo, the capital of Hispanioli in 1504, he ran citizenship status. This would entitle him to buy a building plot in this area. Not long after, Governor Nicolás de Ovando granted him an encomienda and appointed him a notary of the city of Azua.

For 5 years of doing this work, he settled in a colony. In 1506, Cortés participated in the conquest of Hispanioli. The commander of the expedition rewarded him with land and slaves for his great contribution to the expedition. In 1511, Cortés accompanied Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, assistant governor of Hispaniola, in his expedition to conquer Hispanioli. Velázquez was appointed governor of New Spain. At the age of 26, Cortés became treasurer. He was supposed to make sure, among other things, that the Spanish Crown received a quinto, 1/5 of the expedition's perks. Velázquez was impressed by Cortés to the extent that he prepared a high political position in the colony. Hernan Cortés became secretary of governor. He was also appointed twice as an alcada Santiago - an official in judicial and administrative functions. It was a position comparable to that of the mayor or mayor of the city. The office he held was also a source of additional power to which opponents of the colony's power could turn.

Power struggle

In 1514, Cortés led a group of people who demanded that more Indians be allocated to settlers. Over time, the relationship between Cortés and Velazquez has become tense. The nasnaski between them began when the news arrived that Juan de Grijalava had set up a colony on the mainland, in the place of the gold and silver veins. Velazquez decided to help him. Cortés was appointed captain-general of the new expedition in October 1518. the many expeditions and cortés' leadership abilities made it easier for him to capture 6 ships and 300 people in just a month. Jealous Velasquez about Cortez's ability became angry to the point that he decided to hand over command into other hands. However, Hernan quickly gathered even more people and ships in other Cuban ports. At the same time, he also got into an affair with Catalina Xuárez, velázquez's sister-in-law. It is likely that the governor's reluctance to Cortés was others from the fact that he assumed that the conquistador was playing with Cataline's feelings. For a while, his attention was drawn to the woman's sister, but eventually Cortés reluctantly and under pressure from Velasquez married Catalina. After almost 15 years spent in the colonies of Cortés managed to become mayor of the Cuban capital. In parallel, two expeditions to Mexico were held under the orders of Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, which ignited wealth and fame in Corteza.

Cortes' expedition to Mexico

In 1518, under the custody of Juan de Grijalava, Velasquez sent Cortes to Mexico. The expedition was aimed at discovering the areas of Mexico and securing them under colonization. At the last minute Velasquez, motivated by former nassions with a freshly appointed commander, changed his mind and dismissed Cortés. However, he ignored the order and in an act of rebellion on February 15, 1519, he went on expedition. He stopped along the way in The Cuban Trinidad to hire more soldiers and win over horses. At the head of 11 ships and 500 people, including slaves, 13 horses and few guns, Cortés reached the Yucatan Peninsula in mayan territory. There he came across Geronimo de Aguilara, a Spanish Franciscan who survived the ship's dismantling and then slavery in the Mayans, from which he managed to get out. Aguilar learned Chontal Maya and became cortés' translator. In March 1519, he officially took over the territory on behalf of the Spanish Crown.

Then he went to Tabasco, where he met with resistance from the locals and won the battle with the natives. There he caught 20 young women from the tribe and converted them to Christianity. Among these women was La Malinche, his future lover and mother his son, Martin. Malinche knew both Nahuatl and Chontal Maya, which allowed the expedition commander to communicate with the Aztecs. In San Juan de Ulua on Easter 1519, Cortés met with the governors of Moctezuma II: Tendie and Pitalpitoque. In in July of the same year, his people took over Veracruz. As a result, he was dismissed from office as Governor of Cuba and began to respond directly to King Charles V of Habsburg. To prevent any reversal of his people, Cortés decided to sink the ships.

Mediation with Moctezuma

In Veracruz met the Aztec tributes and asked them to arrange another meeting with Moctezuma II, ruler of the Aztec Empire. The king repeatedly refused to meet, but Cortés was relentless. Leaving hundreds of people in Veracruz decided to for the march to Tenochtitlán in mid-August 1519, along with 600 soldiers, 15 riders, 15 guns and hundreds of native carriers and warriors. By way, Cortés established alliances with some tribes, such as The Hague. Totonakami with Cempoali or Nahuami from Tlaxcali. Otomi, and later the Tlaxcals later fought the Spaniards in a series of three battles from 2 to 5 September 1519. Elder and Maxixcatzin convinced Tlaxcalan's commander, Xicotencatla The Younger, that it was better to tie peace with the newcomers than killing them. In October 1519, Cortés and his men marched with the support of around 1000 Tlaxcalteca to Choluli, the second largest city in central Mexico.

The commander of the expedition, to sow fear among the natives, or to prevent their betrayal or rebellion, massacred thousands of unarmed noblemen gathered in the central square, and then partially burned the city. When he arrived at Tenochtitlán, The Spaniards had a huge army. On November 8, 1519, they were slaughtered by Moctezumba II. The ruler deliberately allowed the people of Cortés to enter the Aztec capital, hoping to know the weaknesses of the army, which will allow him to crush them in regular battle. Moctezuma generously and lavishly gifted the Spaniards, who instead of being tined, became even more lustful of wealth. In his letters to the king, Cortés claimed that the Aztecy would recognize him as the envoy of the divine quetzalcoatl snake, or even behind Quetzalcoatla himself. Cortés quickly discovered that several Spanish soldiers had been murdered by the Aztecs when they supported the Totonaków and therefore decided to take Moctezumba hostage in his own palace using it as puppets to govern Tenochtitlán.

Death of Moctezuma

Meanwhile, Velasquez sent another expedition, led by Pánfilo de Narváez, to stop Cortés. Narváez arrived in Mexico in April 1520 with 1,100 troops. Cortés left 200 of his people in Tenochtitlán and took the rest away, to face Narváez. After defeating the enemy, he persuaded his survivors to fight on his side. In Mexico, one of cortés' men, Pedro de Albarado, committed the Alvarado massacre, which aroused the reluctance of a local insurgency. After this Cortés quickly returned to Tenochtitlán. On July 1, 1520, Moctezuma was killed. It is assumed that it was stoned by its own subjects. Cortés, on the other hand, faced an enemy population and decided to flee to Tlaxcali. During La Noche Triste, from 30 June to 1 July 1520, the Spaniards managed to get out of Tenochtitlán, but their rear guard was killed. Most of the treasures looted by Cortés were also lost.

The road to victory

After the Battle of Otumba, the company managed to reach Tlaxcali, but this was bought off by 870 soldiers. With the help of his allies, Cortés finally won, thanks to the reinforcements coming from Cuba. Cortés cut off enemies from wrestling and subjected friends Aztecs of the city. Tenochtitlán's manhunt ended with the Victory of the Spaniards and the complete destruction of the city. In January 1521, Antonio de Villafana plotted a conspiracy against Cortés, for which he was hanged. At the end of August 13, 1521, Cuauhtémoc, tlatoani Tenochtitlán, its ruler, was thus taken over the Aztec empire for the Spanish Crown, and the name of the city was renamed Mexico City.

Cortés Governor of Mexico

From 1521 Until 1524, Cortés personally served as governor of Mexico. Since 1524 Until 1526, Cortés headed an expedition to Honduras, where he defeated Cristóbala de Olid, who took Honduras into possession on behalf of Velázquez. Fearing that Cuahtémoc would rebuild the army and organize an uprising in Mexico, he captured Crisóbal and took him with him to Honduras, Cuahtémoca killed him during the trip. Furious at the betrayal of Olid, who in his opinion was the case of the Governor of Cuba, he decided to arrest Velázquez. Velázquez and Fonseca decided to ask Spain's regent, Hadrian VI, to order Cortés' arrest. A few days later, when Cortés returned from his expedition, Ponce de León suspended him from his duties Governor of New Spain.

New titles in Spain

In 1528, Cortés returned to Spain at the king's call. In Mexico were representatives of conquistadora-Juan Altamirano and Alonso Valiente. As Cortés had more money than initially thought, and certainly more than quinto, the king Charles V of Habsburg awarded Cortés. In exchange for his merits in building the power of the Spanish Empire, in 1529 Cortés received the title of nobleman "don". In addition, he became a marquee. He also married the noblewoman, Dona Juana Zuniga, his former wife, Catalina Suárez had died a few years earlier.

Cortéz's return to Mexico

Year after receiving the titles, Cortés returned to Mexico. However, the political turmoil in Spanish politics has caused many of the projects in which Cortés took part in the rubble. Upon his return, Don Hernan Cortés found anarchy. It was suspected that that it was the marquee that planned an insurgency, and moreover murdered his first wife. An investigation was launched, but efforts were made to keep it secret, as it would increase its popularity. Otherwise, the crisis would only deepen. Keeping everything in the middle was therefore the only right solution. When everything was clarified, Cortés retired and focused on building his palace in Cuernavaca, about 50 km south of Mexico City. Focused research expeditions of the west coast of Central and North America.

Cortés at the end of life

In 1534, Cortés acquired several silver mines in Zumpango del Rio, and a few years later won 20 mines in Sultepec, 12 in Taxco and 3 in Zacualpan. In 1536, Cortés explored the northwest of Mexico and discovered the California Peninsula. Devoted also take the time to explore the coast of the Pacific Ocean. After a research expedition in 1541 to the California peninsula, Cortés returned to Spain. He had many enemies because of the debts incurred and tried to legally default any arrears. Then The emperor allowed Cortés to join an expedition led by Andrea Doria to Algeria. During an unfortunate journey, when the Spanish fleet chased the well-known Turkish corsiser Barbarossa, Cortés almost drowned during the storm.

After many years of expeditions, Cortés drowned in debt, because a large part of the expeditions financed out of his own pocket. Some of the money he tried to recover from the royal vault. In 1547, he decided to return to Mexico. When he arrived in Sevilla, he was hit by a diism. On December 2, 1547, he died of pleurisy at the age of 62.

Hernán Cortés route to conquer of Aztecs 1519-1521

Hernán Cortés route

Source: Wikipedia

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